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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 25, 2019 6:34 am 
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Why Are Galaxies In The Universe Usually Found In Clusters?

Most galaxies in the universe are grouped together in clusters because of their mutual gravitational attraction.

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These clusters contain anywhere from just a few to thousands of galaxies.

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Within clusters, galaxies orbit each other at speeds of about 600 miles per second.

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Hubble image

In turn, galactic clusters often come in groups called superclusters, which can be as large as 1 billion light-years in length.

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1 billion light-years across

The Milky Way Galaxy is one of more than thirty galaxies located in the cluster known as the Local Group, extending about 3 million light-years across.

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The Local Group is in the Local Supercluster along with about fifty other clusters centered around the Virgo cluster some 60 million light-years away.

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Solitary or isolated galaxies are relatively scarce, and only about 5% of the galaxies surveyed have been found to be truly isolated. This is because clusters were formed early in the universe, as clumps of dark matter pulled the galaxies together.

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Isolated galaxy. Courtesy: NASA

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 26, 2019 7:34 am 
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What Is A Bayou?

Bayous are common sights in the southern states, and are commonly found in the Gulf Coast region of the southern United States.

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United States Gulf Coast

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They are shallow, marshy creeks found in flat areas with poor drainage.

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The Mobile Delta in southern Alabama has many swamps and bayous.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 27, 2019 7:27 am 
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Who Invented The Zipper?

In 1893, a man in Chicago named Whitcomb Judson got tired of lacing and unlacing his boots; he wanted to find a better way to fasten them.

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Whitcomb L. Judson

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So he designed a device with interlocking metal teeth and attached them to boots. The boots themselves became known as zippers. But later, the word came to mean the fasteners themselves, and not the boots.

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At first, Zippers were used only on boots, tobacco pouches, and mailbags. It wasn’t until the 1930s that zippers began to appear on ordinary clothing!

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 28, 2019 7:19 am 
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George Harbo And Fred Samuelson

On June 6, 1896, two Norwegian oyster fishermen out of New Jersey began a voyage that ranks as one of the world’s greatest sea going feats. George Harbo and Fred Samuelson climbed into their 18-foot rowboat (named Fox) and began rowing across the Atlantic Ocean, traveling from New York to England.

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Samuelson (rt) and Harbo (lf)

They rowed the entire 3,075 miles in 55 days.

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They started their trip with five pair of extra oars, 60 gallons of fresh water, cartons of canned food, and special tanks attached to their boat that would help them stay afloat.

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After several weeks at sea, big waves swamped the rowboat, and it overturned. Most of their supplies were lost, but they managed to turn their boat upright and succeeded in getting the water out of it. Several days later, they hailed a passing freighter and bought some food and water, which kept them alive and well until they reached England.

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So, why did they venture onto this folly? Wikipedia found this:

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“ The inspiration for their scheme was Richard Kyle Fox (1846–1922), publisher of National Police Gazette from 1877 until his death in 1922. He had backed previous schemes that today might feature in the Guinness Book of Records. Fox allegedly offered a prize of $10,000 (roughly $300,000 in 2018 money) to the first men to row across the Atlantic; however, no contemporary sources exist that confirm this money was ever offered by Fox or the Police Gazette, or that the men were even expecting such a substantial sum.”

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 29, 2019 7:23 am 
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What Was The Fiercest Predatory Bird Of All Time?

Andalgalornis Steulleti was a species of giant flightless predatory birds, also known as “terror birds”. Depending on the species, it ranged in height from between three to nine feet tall.

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Andalgalornis Steulleti

It lived in Argentina and the South Americas until about 2 million years ago, and was the fiercest bird in the world.

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Sporting a three-foot-long head, the largest of these birds ran 45 mph and roosted on eggs the size of soccer balls.

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This terrible carnivore’s beak was razor sharp and big enough to swallow many victims whole.

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Now-deceased Academy Award Winning Flimmaker Satyajit Ray used this creature in one of his short-stories “Brihachanchu” meaning big beak.

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Satyajit Ray

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Brihachanchu

The Terror Bird became extinct 2.5 million years ago.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 30, 2019 7:21 am 
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Because She Was A Woman, Her Groundbreaking Astronomical Discovery Was Discarded

For a long time, many scientists were wrong about what the sun is made-up of until a 25-year-old student wrote an extraordinary doctor’s thesis proving that sun and other stars are made mainly of helium and hydrogen.

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Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (her original name was Cecilia Helena Payne) was born on May 10, 1900, in Wendover, England.

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Wendover

She attended St Paul's Girls' School. In 1919, she won a scholarship to Newnham College, Cambridge University, where she read about botany, physics, and chemistry. While here, she attended a lecture by Arthur Eddington on his 1919 expedition to the island of Principe in the Gulf of Guinea off the west coast of Africa to observe and photograph the stars near a solar eclipse as a test of Einstein's general theory of relativity.

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This sparked her interest in astronomy. She said of the lecture, "The result was a complete transformation of my world picture. My world had been so shaken that I experienced something very like a nervous breakdown."

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Payne’s PhD thesis is considered by many astronomers as one of the best and most influential in the field of astronomy. In her thesis, Cecilia managed to explain that stars are made of mostly hydrogen, including the Sun. However, she was never given proper credit for the discovery, as astronomer Henry Norris Russell persuaded her not to present her conclusion. Four years later, Russell changed his mind and published a paper on the matter without crediting her as the author.

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Her thesis was proven correct, but she was never given the proper credit. The main thesis in her PhD was that hydrogen is the main component of the Sun, making the Sun and other stars very different in composition than the Earth.

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She completed her studies, but was not awarded a degree because of her sex; Cambridge did not grant degrees to women until 1948. She died in 1979. She was 79 years old.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 30, 2019 8:44 pm 
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Interesting. Still find it difficult to know, realize, women still have so many obstacles.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jul 1, 2019 6:46 am 
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RivaRafta wrote:
Interesting. Still find it difficult to know, realize, women still have so many obstacles.

Shamefully so. :raisedeyebrow:

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jul 1, 2019 6:55 am 
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Why Do Two African Countries Have Congo As Their Names?

There are two Congos, separated almost entirely by the Congo River, and they are quite different countries.

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Two Congos separated by a river

The Republic of the Congo is the smaller of the two.

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Republic of The Congo

It was once a French colony and is now calls itself a democracy. Its eastern border touches the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which was called Zaire until a military dictatorship took over the country in 1997.

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Zaire became…

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… The ”Democratic” Republic of The Congo

Zaire was once known as the Belgian Congo. It was a colony of Belgium from 1908 until it gained independence in 1960.

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aka Belgian Congo

It’s interesting to note that many countries with the words “Democratic Republic of” or just “Republic of” in their names are dictatorships, not democracies.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jul 2, 2019 7:28 am 
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Who Was Paul Ehrlich?

Paul Ehrlich was born in Strehlin, Germany, in 1854.

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Paul Ehrlich

He received his medical degree from the University of Leipzig in 1878, but he was much more interested in research than opening up a practice.

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At the time, French chemist Louis Pasteur and German bacteriologist Robert Koch were each discovering the role bacteria played in disease, but Ehrlich was the first to think of chemistry in relation to medicine.

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Ehrlich in his lab

Ehrlich was fascinated by dyes and how they could be used to stain certain tissues and cells in the body.

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Ehrlich’s idea was that if a chemical like a dye could combine only with certain cells, then a chemical like a drug could combine only with disease-causing cells, like bacteria. The drug could then kill the bacteria without harming the tissue around it, like a “magic bullet.”

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It was the beginning of chemotherapy, the treatment of disease using drugs. His research made antibiotics and chemotherapy possible and practical.

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In his cellular research, Ehrlich discovered six different blood cell types. Because of this, he is considered the founder of modern hematology, the study of blood.

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Post Posted: Jul 3, 2019 6:57 am 
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Palmyra Atoll

Palmyra Atoll is located in the equatorial North Pacific, lying about 1,000 miles due south of Hawaii and approximately half way between the Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa. It is a remote place with no permanent inhabitants, untouched and largely overgrown with extremely dense vegetation. The entire atoll measures a mere mile and a half wide and a mile and a half long. The tiny atoll has a rich diversity of wildlife, and is home to a vibrant, thriving coral reef system.

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Even the very discovery of the island is surrounded by an air of the paranormal. The atoll was originally discovered in 1798 by an American sea captain by the name of Edmund Fanning, who was en route to Asia aboard his ship Betsy. The story goes that Fanning awoke several times during the night due to a strong and undeniable sense of impending doom. Growing increasingly disturbed by these vivid and seemingly psychic premonitions, the captain eventually went out on deck just in time to spot a dangerous reef directly ahead, which he just managed to avoid. The reef was the northern edge of Palmyra Atoll. Fanning logged the discovery, but due to failing to report the find in a timely manner, another captain by the name of Cornelius Sowle was credited with finding the island when his ship, the Palmyra, was dashed upon the island’s reefs in 1802. It was Sowle’s ship that gives the atoll its name to this day.

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Captain Edmund Fanning

**Image of The ship Betsy not found**

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Captain Cornelius Sowle

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The ship Palmyra

The strange and eerie hauntings have continued:

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Sowle’s vessel was only the first of several that would come to an unfortunate fate upon Palmyra’s shores. In 1870, the crew of the Angel were shipwrecked on the edge of the lagoon. Those that survived the crash are said to have made it to shore – though their brutally murdered bodies were found callously strewn about the island a few months later, when another passing vessel briefly anchored to investigate. To this day, the ruthless killing of the Angel sailors remains a mystery.

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The ship Angel sinks

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In 1816, a Spanish pirate ship named Esperanza, reportedly loaded with plundered Inca treasure from Peru, became similarly marooned. They supposedly spent a year strenuously eking out survival on the island, before deciding to bury their loot and attempt an escape. Of the two makeshift rafts they fashioned, one was picked up by a passing whaling ship – though the raft’s sole survivor died shortly after his rescue, having contracted a severe case of pneumonia. The second raft was never seen again.

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In 1974, the grisly double murder of a sailing couple that became the subject of the book And the Sea Will Tell took place on Palmyra. The evidence at the subsequent trial for murder showed that Mac and Muff Graham of San Diego, who had ventured to Palmyra for an extended stay of up to a year, were probably killed for their expensive sailboat, the Sea Wind, and the large quantity of food stores it contained.

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The murderer was an ex-convict and fugitive named Buck Walker who, along with his girlfriend Stephanie Stearns, had also taken up residence on the island. Walker and Stearns, described by some as "hippie types", had sailed from Hawaii to Palmyra on a small and very poorly outfitted boat. Walker was later tried, convicted, and sentenced to life in prison for the murder of the Grahams, while Stearns was acquitted, a verdict that remains controversial to this day.

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Malcolm “Mac” Graham

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There were many, many other strange occurrences on the island, amongst them aircraft crashes and disappearances. And yes, Palmyra Island – the one and only other witness to the horrific crime (and indeed, all those that had previously befallen her shores) will lie forever silent and forever still in the Pacific Ocean.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jul 4, 2019 7:21 am 
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